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        The World Conservation Monitoring Centre provides information services on conservation and sustainable use of the world's living resources, and helps others to develop information systems of their own.

        Preliminary list of threatened trees of Sumatra

        This list includes tree species of Sumatra which have a global threat category following the 1994 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. The categories have been applied during an international project to evaluate the conservation status of trees worldwide funded by the Government of the Netherlands. The project is being undertaken by WCMC in association with IUCN/SSC and a wide range of other organisations and individual experts.

        Where the IUCN categories have been applied to species in the list the assessor is given. A report of the Viet Nam Regional Workshop which formed the basis for some of the assessments is available from WCMC. IUCN global threat categories have been applied to all the dipterocarps but the categories are given here only for species endemic to Sumatra. The summary information on dipterocarps given below has been prepared by WCMC from literature.

        The list also includes species which are suspected to be globally threatened and are currently being evaluated. References which refer to the species name or supplement the summary text are provided. Threatened tree species which are endemic to Sumatra are marked with an asterisk.

        Comments are welcomed on this preliminary list. Sumatra has over 180 endemic tree species many of which will be under threat from the fires.

        Acer laurinum

        Aceraceae

        China (Guangdong - Hainan), Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand

        A montane forest tree rare in Sumatra.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 6726, 8507, 14808, 18327, 19017

        Afzelia rhomboidea

        Leguminosae VU A1cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Philippines?

        A slow-growing species scattered on low hills and ridges and temporarily inundated sites. The timber is regarded as very valuable locally and, in the past, exploitation has been considerable in the Philippines.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 4919, 5550, 12937, 14573, 19057

        Agathis borneensis

        Araucariaceae VU A1cd

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        The taxonomy of the species is not resolved. The taxon here represents a tree ranging in Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra to the Philippines, where it meets and is perhaps not distinguishable from A. dammara. Agathis species are distinctive, highly-sought and exploited for their valuable timber. Large stands of this species have been completely extracted in much of its range, most notably in Kalimantan. Exploitation continues to be heavy and regeneration in residual stands is insufficient to replace lost populations. In the past the tree has also been destructively expoited for copal. Plantations are now established.

        Assessor: SSC Conifer Specialist Group

        Refs: 5550, 6851, 9328, 10244, 14573

        Aglaia membranifolia

        Meliaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        This tree is only known from a few herbarium specimens.

        Refs: 6509

        Aglaia rubiginosa

        Meliaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Philippines, Singapore

        An emergent tree of freshwater peat swamp forest, also found in dry heath forest, kerangas, lowland primary forest and hill forest. The wood is used in house and boat building.

        Refs: 5550, 8865, 9199, 10547, 11145, 12937, 18327

        Aglaia yzermannii

        Meliaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        This small, locally common rheophyte is only found in riverine forest on granite soils, especially next to the deeper areas of fast flowing stony rivers. It is known from only one locality in Sumatra.

        Refs: 6509

        Anisoptera costata

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam

        A large tree of semi-evergreen dipterocarp, evergreen and humid lowland forest that occurs on land which is at a premium for conversion to crops. In some areas it is an exceptionally rare tree and in the Philippines it is known from only one collection. It is a major commercial timber species and is used for general construction, veneer and plywood.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199, 10013, 14573

        Anisoptera curtisii

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Thailand

        A species which occurs in mixed dipterocarp forest species, mainly on coastal hills and inland ridges. The wood is utilized.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 14573, 18243

        Anisoptera laevis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        A timber tree which is widespread and recorded in a number of proposed reserve sites.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 7875, 9169, 9199

        Anisoptera marginata

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A species of mixed peat-swamp forest and heath forest.The timber is used for house construction.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Anisoptera megistocarpa

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        A large tree scattered throughout mixed dipterocarp forest on well-drained soil.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 9199

        Aquilaria beccariana

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia

        This species occurs in primary and secondary forest, sometimes in swamp forest, up to 800m altitude. The heartwood of Aquilaria species infected by certain fungi, known as 'agarwood' or 'gaharu', has a high commercial value for incense, perfume and traditional medicine. Since 'gaharu' is so valuable, the trade in the diseased wood has increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation throughout its range.

        Refs: 1766, 19059

        Aquilaria hirta

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Singapore

        A small tree occurring in lowland forest on hill slopes. The heartwood, known as 'agarwood' or 'gaharu' has a high commercial value for incense, perfume and traditional medicine. Since 'gaharu' is so valuable, the trade in the diseased wood has increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation throughout its range.

        Refs: 9199, 19059

        Aquilaria malaccensis

        Thymelaeaceae VU A1cd

        Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura), Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Iran, Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand

        A large evergreen tree found in forests on the foothills of mountains. For centuries this species has been traded internationally for the valuable 'agar' or 'gaharu' wood. Most of the agarwood on the market is collected from the wild as the few plantations set up in the early 1900s either are under pressure or have been destroyed. Illegal trade has been reported in India, Indonesia and Viet Nam. Listed on CITES Appendix II.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 1086, 5550, 5626, 6646, 8865, 9199, 9328, 10471, 12959, 14490, 17140, 19058, 19059

        Aquilaria microcarpa

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Singapore

        This species grows in lowland forest up to 200m altitude. The heartwood has a high commercial value for incense, perfume and traditional medicine. Since 'gaharu' is so valuable, the trade in the diseased wood has increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation throughout its range.

        Refs: 9199, 16104, 19059

        Burkillanthus malaccensis

        Rutaceae VU C2a

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A small tree from a monotypic genus. Solitary trees or small groups of trees occur on stream banks, slopes and on ridge tops in primary and secondary forest in lowland areas. In Sarawak, the species is known from a single specimen collected in 1961 from primary riparian forest in the Labang Forest Reserve, Bintulu.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 14541, 19017

        Calophyllum macrocarpum

        Guttiferae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand

        A large tree found in mixed dipterocarp forest, in periodically inundated forest and in hill forest up to 800 m altitude. The wood is used as bintangor timber.

        Refs: 9199, 14573, 17140

        Calophyllum rigidum

        Guttiferae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Singapore

        A scattered and uncommon tree found in mixed diptercarp forest. In Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra the species occurs in swamp forest and in Sarawak it occurs more in heath forest. The wood is used for ship-building and general construction and is traded as 'bintangor'.

        Refs: 9199, 12937, 14573

        Calophyllum sclerophyllum

        Guttiferae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A large tree restricted to but common in freshwater peat swamps or periodically inundated lowland forest. The hard, durable wood is used as bintangor timber for general construction.

        Calophyllum sundaicum

        Guttiferae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Singapore

        A tree confined to peat swamp, except for an occasional occurrence in heath forest in Sarawak. It is probably exploited for its 'bintangor' timber.

        Refs: 9199, 14573

        Canarium pseudodecumanum

        Burseraceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Thailand

        An uncommon large tree found scattered in primary forest on undulating swamp land up to 280 m.The timber is traded as 'kedondong'. There is concern over its status in Sabah.

        Refs: 7673, 11145, 17140, 19017, 19026

        Canarium pseudopatentinervium

        Burseraceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        An uncommon tree restricted to lowland primary forest. In Sarawak, the species is only known from a single collection from Belaga.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 11145, 19017

        Cantleya corniculata

        Icacinaceae VU A1cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia?, Sabah, Sarawak)

        Scattered below 300m in primary freshwater swamp forests and hill forests in drier areas, this tree is exploited for its highly valued timber. There is great demand for the heavy, hard wood having a fragrance similar to sandalwood for which it is used as a substitute.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 5550, 6426, 12937

        Combretocarpus rotundatus

        Anisophylleaceae VU A1cd

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        This monotypic genus is restricted to peat swamp forest throughout Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Larger trees occur in the wetter swamp forests. The timber is used for railway sleepers and heavy construction.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 19017

        Cotylelobium melanoxylon

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Diospyros pilosanthera

        Ebenaceae

        Cambodia, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sumatra), Malaysia? (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah?), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam

        Found in primary forest up to 900m, this tree is frequently found in peat-swamp forest, swampy areas and river valley forest. In the Philippines it is found in forest fragments smaller than 50 kmē. Forests containing this species have been degraded by legal and illegal logging and loss of habitat due to land conversion.

        Refs: 3683, 4919, 9199, 11145, 12937, 14903, 17140, 19066

        Dipterocarpus baudii

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Cambodia, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam

        A species found scattered in the greatly reduced lowland evergreen forests of South East Asia.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 3998, 6646, 7673, 9169

        Dipterocarpus borneensis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        This tree is commonly found in lowland heath forest and occasionally in mixed swamp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 14573

        Dipterocarpus caudatus ssp. penangianus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        A lowland subspecies found on well-drained land in humid areas. The strong timber is utilised for heavy construction and the wood-oil once had commercial value.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

        * Dipterocarpus cinereus

        Dipterocarpaceae EX

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Dipterocarpus concavus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        * Dipterocarpus conformis ssp. conformis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        This variety is confined to lowland and hill dipterocarp forests in north-west Sumatra.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Dipterocarpus coriaceus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 17140

        Dipterocarpus cornutus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199, 17140

        Dipterocarpus costulatus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A large tree exploited for the keruing timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 17140

        Dipterocarpus elongatus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Singapore

        A large tree of secondary and primary forest and fresh-water swamp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 18243

        Dipterocarpus eurynchus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Philippines

        A species with a localised distribution in mixed dipterocarp forest on leached clay soils.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 10547

        Dipterocarpus fagineus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 9169, 10547

        Dipterocarpus gracilis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Bangladesh, India (Andaman and Nicobar Is - Andaman Is, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Tripura), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand

        A large tree found in lowland seasonal semi-evergreen and evergreen dipterocarp forest. It is one of the important sources of keruing timber in Indo-China and is often used as a commercial grade plywood.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 15754

        Dipterocarpus grandiflorus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        India (Andaman and Nicobar Is - Andaman Is), Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam

        A relict species from the Pleistocene Sundaland which was once covered with semi-evergreen dipterocarp forest. It occurs in primary semi-evergreen and evergreen dipterocarp forest. Substantial amounts of keruing timber and also large quantities of oleo-resin are harvested.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 848, 3998, 6646, 9169, 9199, 17140

        Dipterocarpus hasseltii

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Bali, Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam

        A large tree of lowland dipterocarp forest, cut for keruing timber. It is recorded in the sacred forest of Sanggen, Bali.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5054, 5550, 7673, 9169

        Dipterocarpus humeratus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

        This keruing timber species is scattered or semi-gregarious on undulating land and clay ridges below 700 m altitude.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 14573

        Dipterocarpus kerrii

        Dipterocarpaceae

        India (Andaman and Nicobar Is - Andaman Is), Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam

        A species which is locally common in lowland semi-evergreen and evergreen dipterocarp forest. It is cut for keruing timber and is the main source of wood-oil (damar minyak or gurjun balsam) for the region.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 3998, 5550, 7673, 9169, 17140, 19093

        Dipterocarpus kunstleri

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak), Philippines

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Dipterocarpus lowii

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A large tree which is an important source of keruing timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 17140

        Dipterocarpus palembanicus ssp. palembanicus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Singapore

        The subspecies has a local distribution in mixed dipterocarp forest on hills up to 650 m.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 9501, 14573

        Dipterocarpus retusus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        China (Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java, Lesser Sunda Is, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam

        A large timber tree which is widely occuring in moist evergreen, sometimes semi-deciduous, montane forest. In China, the species is confined to an area of 30 kmē in Yingjiang, where a nature reserve has been set up. There is still some threat of habitat conversion.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 1818, 3998, 5550, 7673, 9169, 11847, 15754

        Dipterocarpus rigidus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        A large tree which is locally abundant in dry forest on coastal hills.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Dipterocarpus sublamellatus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Singapore

        In Peninsular Malaysia, this very large tree is an important source of keruing timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199, 17140

        Dipterocarpus verrucosus

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A timber tree, locally common on ridges in mixed dipterocarp forest. The keruing timber is exploited, especially in Brunei and parts of Peninsular Malaysia.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 14573

        Dryobalanops aromatica

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A very large gregarious tree which provides most of the kapur timber and camphor for Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. It has recently been determined that D. sumatrensis is a synonym of D. aromatica; the name D. aromatica has been conserved.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 3738, 10547, 13857

        Dryobalanops oblongifolia ssp. occidentalis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A large tree restricted to shallow acidic soils.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Durio carinatus

        Bombacaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A species found in marshy areas, especially peat-swamp forest. It is primarily used for its timber, however the tasteless fruit can be eaten.

        Refs: 11145, 17140

        Durio griffithii

        Bombacaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        A fairly widespread species restricted to lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. Fruits are set relatively rarely because of a strong self-incompatibility within individual trees. The species does, however, flower reliably and could be used as a genetic source for the improvement of cultivated durian.

        Refs: 9199, 10547, 17140, 18327

        Durio lowianus

        Bombacaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        This large, emergent tree occurs in rainforest up to an altitude of 150 m. It flowers infrequently. The wood is believed to be used as durian timber.

        Refs: 10547

        Durio malaccensis

        Bombacaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia

        An understorey tree, found in rainforest up to 800 m in altitude. It is of some interest as a potential genetic resource because of its annual flowering.

        Refs: 11145, 12937, 16121

        Durio oxleyanus

        Bombacaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

        An emergent tree found in the moister areas of lowland rainforest. The fruits are collected from the wild but the species is rarely cultivated because of its infrequent fruiting. Primarily used for its timber, levels of exploitation have led to concern over genetic erosion in some areas.

        Refs: 8865

        Durio zibethinus

        Bombacaceae

        Indonesia (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia, Philippines

        The main source of durian fruit, the range of the species in the wild is not known with certainty. Wild trees may exist on Sumatra and Borneo. Cultivated trees are found in a range stretching from southern India to New Guinea. The species provides an important crop for Viet Nam and Myanmar. There is some concern over genetic erosion in some areas.

        Refs: 2072, 3738, 16121

        * Elaeocarpus beccarii ssp. sumatrana

        Elaeocarpaceae VU B1+2c, D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Known only from the type collection this newly described subspecies is found in lowland ridge forest in Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4074

        * Elaeocarpus brigittae

        Elaeocarpaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A newly described species known from montane rainforest and mossy forest in Gunung Leuser National Park in Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4074

        *Elaeocarpus simaluensis

        Elaeocarpaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A species known from one location in swamp forest on Simalue Island, north-west Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4074

        Elaeocarpus submonoceras ssp. submonoceras

        Elaeocarpaceae VU B1+2c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A tree known from primary forest in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, where it has not been collected since 1929.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4074

        Endocomia canarioides

        Myristicaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam?

        A fairly widespread tree found in evergreen forest, open bamboo forest and lowland rainforest below 300m.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 9199, 9603, 19078

        Eusideroxylon zwageri

        Lauraceae VU A1cd+2cd

        Brunei, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines

        Generally a species of lowland primary forest. Belian or Ironwood is one of the most renowned timbers of Borneo, the decline of which was first noted in 1955. Population reduction due to over-exploitation and shifting agriculture has been noted in the following regions: Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines. Indonesia has banned the export of this species and Sarawak has placed restrictions on export; Sabah and Kalimantan continue to export belian. The ability to regenerate in logged-over forests is limited. So far it is only planted on a small scale because large scale plantations are limited by inadequate seeds and seedling supply.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 898, 3122, 7087, 7461, 12937, 13395, 14573, 17235, 19026

        *Gonystylus acuminatus

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A lowland tree restricted to Sumatra.

        Refs: 1766

        Gonystylus bancanus

        Thymelaeaceae VU A1cd

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A gregarious, often dominant tree of lowland freshwater swamp and peat-swamp forest up to 100m altitude in south-west Peninsular Malaysia, south-east Sumatra, Bangka and Borneo. This species has been heavily depleted as it is the most important source of 'ramin' timber. It is threatened by over-exploitation and habitat loss.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 7673, 14448, 14573, 17140

        Gonystylus confusus

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia? (Sumatra?), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        A tree confined to non-inundated lowland rainforest up to 600m altitude. Trees are cut for 'ramin' timber.

        Refs: 9199, 14573, 17140

        Gonystylus forbesii

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

        This tree is fairly common in swamp forest, especially near streams and in dryland rainforest up to 1200m. The timber is used as 'ramin', but is only of minor importance.

        Refs: 1766, 14573

        Gonystylus macrophyllus

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia (Bali, Irian Jaya, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Papua New Guinea (North Solomons), Philippines?, Solomon Islands (South Solomon)

        A widespread tree occurring in primary forest reaching an altitude of 1500m in some areas. However , this species might eventually be split into several distinct species, as the present species concept might be too wide. It is one of the important 'ramin' timber species and the heartwood is used as incense.

        Refs: 1766, 4919, 12937, 14573, 17140

        Gonystylus maingayi

        Thymelaeaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        Restricted to primary rainforest and peat-swamp forest up to 200m altitude, this tree is exploited for its valuable 'ramin' timber. The roots are used locally as a medicine administered after childbirth.

        Refs: 7673, 9199, 14573

        Gonystylus velutinus

        Thymelaeaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan?, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah?, Sarawak?)

        Scattered and locally common in primary rainforest, this species is used as 'ramin' for house construction and planks.

        Refs: 14573

        * Hopea bancana

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1cd, B1+2c

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Endemic to Sumatra, this species is seriously threatened by the loss of its forest habitat.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673

        Hopea beccariana

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Thailand

        Widespread on coastal hills and inland ridges, this tree is an important source of heavy merawan timber and dammar resin.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Hopea bilitonensis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        This lowland forest species is seriously threatened by the loss of its habitat.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Hopea cernua

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

        This species grows in mixed dipterocarp forest on fertile soils up to 1650m.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 14573

        Hopea dryobalanoides

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        Widespread and locally common in the lowlands, this species is found on clay-rich fertile soils on undulating land and well-drained flat land. The wood is used as merawan timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 14573

        Hopea ferruginea

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 13857, 16104

        Hopea kerangasensis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Hopea mengerawan

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Singapore

        Scattered throughout lowland mixed dipterocarp forest, this species is an important source of merawan timber and also produces a good quality dammar resin.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

        Hopea montana

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah)

        This tree is found infrequently on hill slopes in dipterocarp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 13857

        Hopea myrtifolia

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        This tree grows in deep fertile soils on well drained land. The species provides a merawan timber and a good quality dammar resin.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 14573

        Hopea nervosa

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        This species is locally common on lowland clay-rich fertile soil.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        * Hopea nigra

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A tree endemic to the lowland forests of Sumatra, where it is severely threatened by the loss and degradation of the habitat.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Hopea pachycarpa

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A tree found in mixed dipterocarp forest. A reserve has been proposed where the species occurs.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 17140

        * Hopea paucinervis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        This species is possibly extinct.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Hopea pierrei

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Cambodia, Indonesia (Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Thailand, Viet Nam

        A relatively small dipterocarp which is found mainly in lowland evergreen rain forest on sandy soils but also in heath forest in parts of Indo-China. It is a valued timber species in Viet Nam and Cambodia. The Viet Namese population has decreased due to exploitation and habitat reduction.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 848, 7673, 9169, 14573

        Hopea sangal

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Java, Lesser Sunda Is, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand

        A riparian tree which is scattered but locally common. It is commonly cut as merawan timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 3998, 5550, 7673, 9169, 9199, 17140

        Hopea semicuneata

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A tree of lowland dipterocarp forest on clay-rich alluvium. It is often cut for its giam timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        *Horsfieldia atjehensis

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A montane forest species known from 1 collection from North Aceh.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 319, 10547

        Horsfieldia fulva

        Myristicaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A rare tree occuring in lowland rainforest up to 200m in Jambi province, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. In Peninsular Malaysia the species is threatened by urban expansion and logging activities.

        Assessor: de Wilde, W.J.J.O.

        Refs: 319, 11647, 19073, 19078

        *Horsfieldia hirtiflora

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A small tree which is only known from 3 collections from Tapanuli and the east coast.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 3597, 10547

        Horsfieldia macilenta

        Myristicaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A rare tree found growing in lowland primary mixed dipterocarp forest and swamp forest. There are 8 collections in total.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 3597

        * Horsfieldia macrothyrsa

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A small tree of submontane and riverine forest apparantly restricted to Mt Sago, Central Sumatra and Northern Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 3597, 10547

        Horsfieldia penangiana ssp. penangiana

        Myristicaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A tree found in primary dry montane forest. It is known from 7 collections from Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 2147

        Horsfieldia pulcherrima

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A rare tree found in lowland primary forest and swamp forest. It is known from 5 collections from Pahang and Johore and 1 sterile collection from Jambi, Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 319

        Horsfieldia sparsa

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand

        An uncommon tree found in both primary and secondary dryland forest and in periodically inundated forest up to 350m altitude. Widely distributed in Peninsular Malaysia, this species is additionally known from a single collection from Peninsular Thailand, 2 collections from northern Sumatra and 1 collection from Singapore.

        Assessor: de Wilde, W.J.J.O.

        Refs: 319, 9199

        Horsfieldia superba

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        A tree scattered in lowland, hill and swamp forest. This species has not been collected recently and it is threatened by the expansion of human habitation and logging.

        Assessor: Chua, L.S.L.

        Refs: 319, 9199, 17140, 19073, 19078

        Horsfieldia tomentosa

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore?, Thailand

        A tree of lowland and hill forest found up to 300m altitude.

        Assessor: de Wilde, W.J.J.O.

        Refs: 319, 9199

        * Horsfieldia triandra

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A tree known from two collections in central and south Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 319, 10547

        Horsfieldia tristis

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        A species known from 5 localities in lowland forest.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 319

        Horsfieldia valida

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Kalimantan?, Sumatra)

        This tree is known from 5 collections taken from primary and ravine forest on the east and west coast of Sumatra. A collection, which is doubtfully this species, was taken from Mt Damoes, West Kalimantan.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 3597, 10547

        Hydnocarpus sumatrana

        Flacourtiaceae DD

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines, Thailand

        A timber species occuring in rainforest in hilly or steep locations up to 200m. It used to be common on Java.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 6426, 7673, 9328, 12937, 19057

        Knema andamanica ssp. nicobarica

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        India (Andaman and Nicobar Is - Nicobar Is), Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A total of 6 collections are known of this rainforest tree, taken from Nicobar Is., Penang Is. and Atjeh in Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 10460

        Knema curtisii var. paludosa

        Myristicaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak), Singapore

        A variety found predominantly in fresh-water swamp forest where it has been infrequently collected.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 9199, 10460

        Knema hookerana

        Myristicaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand

        A distinctive species which occurs from southern Peninsular Thailand to Sumatra; no recent collections have been made of this species.

        Assessor: de Wilde, W.J.J.O.

        Refs: 9199, 10460

        Knema intermedia

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        Farily widespread in west Malesia, however the species has only been collected twice in recent years.

        Assessor: de Wilde, W.J.J.O.

        Refs: 9199, 10460, 17140

        * Knema kunstleri ssp. macrophylla

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Only known from the type collection from the Irdragiri Uplands, the subspecies occurs in lowland swamp forest.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 10460, 10547

        Knema lampongensis

        Myristicaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra)

        A total of 5 collections have been found on the east coast and Riouw Island off Sumatra and the Anambas Islands off Borneo.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 10460

        * Knema losirensis

        Myristicaceae LR/cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        This tree has only been found in northern Sumatra. It is present in the Gunung Leuser Nature Reserves.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 10460, 10547

        Koompassia excelsa

        Leguminosae LR/cd

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines, Thailand?

        One of the tallest rainforest trees ever reported, reaching up to 85m, found along rivers and in valleys in lowland primary forest and often in secondary growth. The trees are protected from cutting in Kalimantan because wild bees often build combs in the branches. It is also protected in Sarawak under the Wildlife Protection Bill of 1990. There is concern over its conservation status in Sabah. However, Koompassia timber is currently gaining importance in trade because of the shortage of heavy hardwood timber.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 4919, 12937, 14573, 17214, 19026, 19072

        Koompassia malaccensis

        Leguminosae LR/cd

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore, Thailand

        This very large tree is found in freshwater peat swamp forest, usually below 150 m. It is a useful timber species for heavy construction. Koompassia timber is currently gaining importance in trade because of the shortage of heavy hardwood timber. It is protected in Sarawak under the Wildlife Protection Bill of 1990.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 2422, 9199, 12827, 12937, 14573, 17140, 17214, 19057, 19072

        Lepidopetalum montanum

        Sapindaceae

        India (Andaman and Nicobar Is - Andaman Is, Andaman and Nicobar Is - Nicobar Is), Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A primary forest tree confined to north Sumatra, south Andaman and Nicobar. Of the 14 collections of this species most are from the late 1800's, only a couple of collections are from the 1960's -70's.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 18389

        Lophopetalum multinervium

        Celastraceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        This tree is found in freshwater and peat swamp forest and very occasionally in submontane forest up to 1500m. It is widely distributed in Sabah and Sarawak. There is great demand for wood of this genus which is traded as perupok. In east Kalimantan, a process has been set up to record 'superior mother trees'.

        Refs: 7673, 9199, 12937, 14573, 17140, 19017

        Lophopetalum pachyphyllum

        Celastraceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A tree occuring in dry forest on slopes, ridges and limestone cliffs up to an elevation of 450m. In Sarawak, the species is only known from two collections from Bako National Park. The timber is used as perupok, which is in high demand.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 14573, 19017

         

        Lophopetalum pallidum

        Celastraceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        This tree occurs in dry primary rainforest, often on hillsides or ridge tops. It is rare in Sabah and Sarawak. The species, along with other members of the genus, is exploited for its perupok timber, for which there is high demand.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 14573, 19017

        * Mangifera bompardii

        Anacardiaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A mountain species restricted to the Karo Highlands and Aceh between 1200 and 1700m. It represents one of two mango species which can grow at high altitudes. It is common in semi-cultivation and is potentially an important candidate in planting programmes in areas such as the Mediterranean.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 11278

        Mangifera bullata

        Anacardiaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia? (Peninsular Malaysia?, Sabah?)

        A tree known from two sterile collections from nothern Sumatra and a couple of dubious collections from Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. It is reported to be fairly common in drained rainforest at 900m.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 11278

        Mangifera decandra

        Anacardiaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

        A very large tree, reaching heights of up to 50m. It is common but very scattered within lowland evergreen rainforest.

        Refs: 7215, 9570

        *Mangifera dewildei

        Anacardiaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Found in lowland rainforest, this massive tree is only known from the type locality in North Sumatra Leuser Nature Reserve at 400m.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 11278

        Mangifera kemanga

        Anacardiaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A very popular fruit tree in west Java where it is commonly sold in markets, occasionally reaching the supermarkets of Jakarta. It is restricted to the wet tropical lowland where it is only known in cultivation or semi-cultivation; it is possibly extinct in the wild. Very rarely found in Borneo, it was once cultivated in Sabah near Kota Kinabalu, but has since been reported to have disappeared. Hybrids of this species with Mangifera caesia have been found in Kalimantan.

        Refs: 11278, 16394

        Mangifera lalijiwa

        Anacardiaceae DD

        Indonesia (Bali, Java, Sumatra?)

        There is some question over the existence of this large forest tree in the wild. A population is known from an area between Semarang and Yogyakarta in central Java. There are also possible occurrences in Madura, Java, Bali and Sumatra and perhaps further afield. In Java encroaching agriculture and logging has almost completely eradicated lowland forest. This species is obviously highly valued for its fruit which appear in large quantities in local markets.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 9078, 11278

        Mangifera leschenaultii

        Anacardiaceae

        Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah)

        A tree of tropical, wet, lowland areas throughout western Malesia, where it is also widely cultivated. Despite the species being extensively planted, there is curiously little known about it. Kostermans and Bompard consider it to be one of the few species in the genus "in real danger of extinction".

        Refs: 11278

        Mangifera longipetiolata

        Anacardiaceae

        Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah)

        This uncommon tree occurs in wet evergreen forest. It is probably extinct on Java. The fruit is unlikely to be eaten and the wood is reputed to be used.

        Refs: 11278

        Mangifera macrocarpa

        Anacardiaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Singapore, Thailand

        A large tree extremely scattered and localised within lowland wet evergreen rainforest. The species is rarely found in cultivation as it flowers and fruits infrequently and the fruit is rarely, if ever, eaten. It is possibly extinct in Java.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 7215, 9199, 9328, 9570, 11479

        Mangifera microphylla

        Anacardiaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        An uncommon poorly-known species which prefers wet lowland evergreen forest. It is in cultivation but flowers and fruits infrequently. It has not been re-collected from the wild in recent years.

        Refs: 11278, 16394

        Mangifera odorata

        Anacardiaceae EW

        This tree has never been found in the wild and its origin remains a mystery. It is commonly cultivated in high rainfall areas of east Asia for its popular fruit, especially in areas where Mangifera indica can't be grown.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4377, 5054, 5550, 9199, 9570, 11278, 12937

        Mangifera paludosa

        Anacardiaceae EN A1c+2c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        A tree found in freshwater marshy areas and mangrove swamp in southern Peninsular Malaysia, Riau Is., Bangka Is, Jambi and Palembang, Sumatra. It is thought to be extinct in Singapore due to urban expansion into the mangrove areas. It is suspected to be "in real danger of extinction" according to Kostermans. An occurrence is recorded in Berbak Nature Reserve in Sumatra.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4377, 16394

        Mangifera rigida

        Anacardiaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah)

        A tree restricted to lowland rainforest in north-west Borneo, Sumatra and Simaloer Island.

        Refs: 8969, 11278, 16394

        Mangifera rubropetala

        Anacardiaceae EW

        Yet to be found in the wild, this species is cultivated widely in Sabah, Sarawak and also south Kalimantan and probably Sumatra. Its tasty fruit are similar to the common mango. It is adapted to wet lowland conditions and is best grown in areas without a pronounced dry season.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 11278

        Mangifera rufocostata

        Anacardiaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah)

        One of the tallest trees in the genus reaching 53 m in height, it is found scattered in lowland wet evergreen forest in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. The species produces a sour-tasting fruit after a long dry spell when other food is scarce.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4377, 8969, 11278

        * Mangifera similis

        Anacardiaceae VU A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Restricted to south Kalimantan and Palembang in Sumatra, this rare tree is found in lowland rainforests. It was introduced to Java where it is now cultivated. The specimen from Sumatra is slightly different.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 15991

        Mangifera subsessilifolia

        Anacardiaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Singapore

        A rare tree scattered in lowland wet evergreen forest. In Singapore, only 1 tree remains on Bukit Timah.

        Refs: 4377, 11278

        Mangifera swintonioides

        Anacardiaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah)

        A fairly large tree found in lowland wet evergreen forests in western Malesia. The fruit is a scarcity food and is used in sambal.

        Refs: 4377, 11278

        Merrillia caloxylon

        Rutaceae VU B1+2c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia (ex), Sabah), Thailand

        Solitary trees of this monotypic genus are scattered in lowland moist primary and secondary forest on stream banks and hill sides. It has only been collected once in Sabah from a streambank in secondary forest in Sandakan. The durable, handsome wood has been used in the past Peninsular Malaysia to make small implements. It is now presumed to be extinct in this region.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 1685, 5550, 17140, 19017

        Microtropis sumatrana

        Celastraceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah)

        This tree of lowland to submontane forest up to 1050 m altitude is found in Sumatra and is uncommon in Sabah.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 19017

        Myristica depressa

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A tree restricted to lowland primary mixed dipterocarp forest.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 18022

        Myristica gigantea

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A large tree found on flat land and hillsides up to 700m altitude. The wood is used as 'penarahan' timber.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 11145

        Myristica lowiana

        Myristicaceae LR/nt

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        This tree is mainly found in peat-swamp forest; it is rarely found on dry land. Trees are cut for 'penarahan' timber.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 9199, 11145, 12937, 18022

        Nyssa javanica

        Cornaceae

        Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        This large tree is found in primary submontane forest between 1400 and 1500m. In Sarawak it is only known from Mount Kinabalu and from a single collection from the Kelabit Highlands.

        Refs: 19017

        Ochanostachys amentacea

        Olacaceae DD

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        A monotypic genus found scattered in the understorey, occasionally reaching the canopy, of primary and secondary lowland rainforest, often mixed dipterocarp forest. Natural regeneration is sparse and scattered, but it can be good under favourable conditions. The tree is slow growing; taking about 150 years to reach a diameter of 50 cm. The petaling timber is too scarce to be of commercial importance, however it is often traded with other medium and hard woods in mixed consignments. The wood is used for house posts and heavy construction.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 5550, 9199, 9328, 11145, 12937, 17140, 19017

        Pachylarnax praecalva

        Magnoliaceae DD

        China, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Viet Nam

        In Viet Nam, the species occurs on high mountains in evergreen forest. It is exploited for its valuable timber and has suffered significant population declines here.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 848, 2428, 15357, 19060

        *Parashorea aptera

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Only found below 70m in eastern Sumatra, this tree grows on sandy soils on low hills.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Parashorea globosa

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A tree suffering from degradation of the lowland dipterocarp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        Parashorea lucida

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        This species is found in mixed dipterocarp forest on hills.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Parinari costata ssp. costata

        Chrysobalanaceae DD

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines

        A lowland forest tree which is uncommon in Sabah and Sarawak.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 19017

        Parinari oblongifolia

        Chrysobalanaceae DD

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        This tree grows in lowland rainforest on riverbanks or in valleys up to 450 m altitude.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 7673, 9199, 12937, 19017

        Pericopsis mooniana

        Leguminosae VU A1cd, D1

        Federated States of Micronesia, Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka

        A fairly large tree mainly found scattered within coastal forests. The species has been heavily exploited for its beautiful timber which is in great demand and realises high prices; however, since supplies are limited, trade and export are minimal. It is threatened further by poor natural regeneration and lack of replanting. Very few stands remain in Sulawesi, it is thought to be almost extinct in Sabah, and it is considered to be rare or vulnerable in Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan and Sri Lanka.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 1517, 4329, 5550, 8203, 8865, 12779, 12937, 13395, 14573, 17991, 18796, 19026, 19112

        Pinus merkusii

        Pinaceae VU B1+2ce

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Philippines, Viet Nam

        An important timber tree known from open pine woodlands in Sumatra around Lake Toba following the mountains north-east, and also in the Philippines. High levels of exploitation have resulted in populations being reduced to very low levels in the Philippines. In Sumatra the timber continues to be extracted. The effects on the population here are yet to be confirmed.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 374, 3091, 6405, 6646, 19093

        Podocarpus deflexus

        Podocarpaceae LR/cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A shrub or small tree 10-13m tall inhabiting moist montane scrub between 1500m and 2100m altitude. This species is confined to Pahang (G. Tahan), where it has complete protection status in the national park ( Taman Negara) and North Sumatra.

        Assessor: Chua, L.S.L.

        Refs: 374, 6851, 8464, 19073

        Pterocarpus indicus

        Leguminosae VU A1d

        Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Bali, Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Myanmar, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea), Philippines, Solomon Islands (South Solomon), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Viet Nam

        A widespread tree found up to 500m in primary forests and in some secondary forests, mainly along tidal creeks and rocky shores. The species is threatened by over-exploitation for its 'narra' timber, including illegal felling, and shifting cultivation. It has been extinct in the wild for over 300 years in Viet Nam. In Sri Lanka, the species was not found during the extensive forest surveys conducted for the National Conservation Review, suggesting the species is either extremely rare or possibly extinct. In Peninsular Malaysia, the species is possibly extinct due to exploitation of the few known stands. The largest remaining populations occur in New Guinea, however, they are being heavily exploited. It is considered vulnerable in the Philippines, endangered in India and threatened in Indonesia. Pterocarpus indicus is widely cultivated throughout the tropics.

        Assessor: WCMC

        Refs: 4919, 5550, 6125, 6156, 6426, 8058, 9328, 10013, 10571, 12779, 12937, 14573, 17140, 19057, 19112

        Quassia borneensis

        Simaroubaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

        This tree is usually found in primary mixed dipterocarp forest and occasionally in peat swamp or kerangas forests. An uncommon species so far only known from Indragiri of Sumatra, Sabah and Sarawak. In Sabah, it is only known from Pulau Gaya near Kota Kinabalu and is considered to be possibly extinct.

        Refs: 19017, 19026

        Santiria conferta

        Burseraceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        This tree of submontane forest is very uncommon in Borneo; it is only known from a few collections from Sabah and Sarawak. It is also found in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.

        Refs: 7673, 9199, 11145, 12937, 19017

        * Sarcotheca laxa var. brigittae

        Oxalidaceae VU B1+2c

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Confined to Aceh, Sumatra, this variety occurs in lowland rainforest.

        Assessor: Chung, R.C.K.

        Refs: 19073

        *Schefflera capitulifera

        Araliaceae VU D2

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A small hemiepiphytic tree collected 5 times in northern Sumatra. This distinctive species is found in montane forest and along forest edges in deep ravines. It is found in Gunung Leuser National Park

        Assessor: Frodin, D.

        Refs: 10547

        Schefflera divaricata

        Araliaceae

        Indonesia (Java, Sumatra)

        Restricted to south Sumatra and west Java, this small tree has not been collected recently.

        Refs: 10547

        *Schefflera multifoliolata

        Araliaceae EN B1+2c

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A montane forest tree restricted to Gunung Sibajak, Sibalangit and Banda Baru of northern Sumatra. The species' describtion was based on 8 specimens, the most recent of which was collected in 1983. The population on G. Sibajak is under pressure as this area has long been a popular tourist destination close to Medan. The habitat is also threatened by shifting cultivation.

        Assessor: Frodin, D.

        Refs: 10547

        Scutinanthe brunnea

        Burseraceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Sri Lanka

        Found below 100 m in lowland forest, this species has a large range. It is uncommon in Sabah and Sarawak and of conservation concern in Sabah. It is considered vulnerable in Sri Lanka because it was found in only 3 localities during the National Conservation Review surveys and it is confined to the remnant lowland rainforests in the south-west.

        Refs: 7673, 12937, 17195, 19026, 19112

        Shorea assamica ssp. globifera

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Philippines, Thailand

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea atrinervosa

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A large tree locally common on hillsides and undulating land in mixed dipterocarp forest. The wood is used as balau and the Illipe nuts are collected.

        Refs: 14573

        Shorea balangeran

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra)

        This common tree of peat swamp forest is a major source of red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea balanocarpoides

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        This tree grows on yellow sandy loam on undulating land and ridges. It is used as yellow meranti and the illipe nuts are collected locally.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea blumutensis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A slow growing species of lowland dipterocarp forest, threatened directly by logging; the tree is unlikely to reach reproductive maturity within a logging cycle. It is currently being exploited for its yellow meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        Shorea bracteolata

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        Found mostly on well-drained lowland coastal hills, this tree is heavily exploited for white meranti timber especially in Peninsular Malaysia.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199, 17140

        *Shorea conica

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1cd, C2a

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        This species is found on undulating land near the coast. It is threatened by forest conversion and degradation.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

         

        Shorea dasyphylla

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        This tree is found in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest on well-drained land and is cut for light red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea dealbata

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A tree that is locally frequent on flat coastal swamps on yellow sandy soils and on low hills. It is exploited for its white meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 17140

        Shorea falcifera

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A slow-growing lowland forest species which is cut for Balau timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 18327

        Shorea foxworthyi

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Thailand

        A lofty tree that is a common source of balau timber. Logging is a serious threat because the reproductive cycle of the species exceeds the present cutting cycle.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        *Shorea furfuracea

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Endemic to Sumatra, this tree is found in lowland mixed primary forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 9501

        Shorea glauca

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Thailand

        A semi-gregarious species that is found on rocky hillsides and ridges. It is cut for balau timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea gratissima

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand

        A large tree found on well-drained soil in coastal areas, felled for white meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 3998, 7673, 9169, 9199

        Shorea guiso

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam

        A lowland forest species which is used as red balau timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 19093

        Shorea hemsleyana ssp. hemsleyana

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A species found on leached sandy soils and in shallow peat swamp. In Sarawak trees are protected for the illipe nuts.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673

        Shorea hopeifolia

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Philippines

        A large tree often found along streams on clay-rich soils. A source of yellow meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 2072, 7673, 9169

         

        Shorea javanica

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Java, Sumatra)

        Restricted to Sumatra and central Java, this dipterocarp is found in primary and secondary forest in both dry and periodically inundated areas. Plantations of this white meranti timber tree have been established in the south of Sumatra.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 14573

        Shorea johorensis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A lofty tree locally common on well-drained soils of the lowland. This species produces a high grade light red meranti timber and for this reason it is a priority plantation tree in Indonesia.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea kunstleri

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A large tree specific to leached sandy clay soils, felled for its valued red balau or red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea lamellata

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A large tree that is found locally on ridges. The tree is cut for white meranti timber and the wood is tapped for its clear resin in Borneo.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        Shorea lepidota

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A tree that is locally common in lowland dipterocarp forest. The illipe nuts are collected on a small scale and the timber is used as light red meranti.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 17140

        Shorea leprosula

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand

        This species is still commonly found, but it has suffered a massive population reduction mainly because of rates of exploitation of its light red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199, 17140

        Shorea longisperma

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        An enormous tree of the declining mixed dipterocarp forests in Sumatra and northern Borneo. It is felled for yellow meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea macrantha

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        This species occurs in the declining mixed peat-swamp forests. The tree is exploited for its light or dark red meranti timber and its edible illipe nuts.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 17140

        Shorea macroptera ssp. macroptera

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

        Shorea materialis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A tree of remaining patchy *kerangas vegetation on podzols and sandstone cuestas. It is cut for balau timber. The population in Peninsular Malaysia has declined because of over-exploitation.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169, 17140

        Shorea maxwelliana

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        One of the main balau timber trees, occurring locally in some abundance on low ridges.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea ochrophloia

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A species, found locally on well-drained undulating low-lying ground, which is utilised as red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        Shorea ovalis ssp. ovalis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Singapore

        A widespread subspecies that is found in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

        Shorea ovalis ssp. sericea

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        This subspecies occurs in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea ovata

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Philippines

        A widespread species which is cut for its dark red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673

        Shorea parvifolia ssp. parvifolia

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, Thailand

        The species is possibly the most common dipterocarp in Malesia. It is, however, heavily exploited as the main source of light red meranti timber in South East Asia.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

        Shorea parvifolia ssp. velutina

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        The species is possibly the most common dipterocarp in Malesia. It is, however, heavily exploited as the main source of light red meranti timber in South East Asia.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Shorea pauciflora

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        An immense tree of lowland and hill forest on well-drained soils. The species is exploited for its valuable dark red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

         

        Shorea peltata

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1cd, C2a

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A tree of mixed dipterocarp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

         

        Shorea platycarpa

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore

        A timber tree specific to mixed peat-swamp forest.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9199, 17140

         

        Shorea platyclados

        Dipterocarpaceae EN A1cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        A species found in hilly and mountainous areas on deep fertile soils. It produces a fine dark red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

         

        Shorea resinosa

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        A tree with a local distribution in mixed dipterocarp forest. The timber is used as a minor white meranti timber. The main threat to the species is forest conversion and degradation.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

         

        Shorea retinodes

        Dipterocarpaceae NE

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        This large tree is locally common on slopes up to 1000 m altitude.The timber is used as white meranti and the tree is the main source of a clear resin called 'damar mata kucing'.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 14573

        Shorea scabrida

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

        A light red meranti timber species found locally in swamp forest, heath forest or mixed dipterocarp forest on shallow peat soil.

        Assessor: Unspecified

        Refs: 14573

        Shorea singkawang

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Thailand

        A dark red meranti timber species, usually found near lowland streams. The illipe nuts are collected.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 9501

        Shorea teysmanniana

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A tree of mixed peat-swamp forest, exploited for light red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 17140

        Shorea uliginosa

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak)

        Locally abundant in mixed peat-swamp forest, this species is cut for its dark red meranti timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 17140

        Sindora inermis

        Leguminosae VU A1d

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Philippines

        The timber of this lowland forest species is used as sepetir. The supply is very limited.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 2072, 4919, 12937, 14573

        *Sindora sumatrana

        Leguminosae

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        This locally abundant tree is restricted to Palembang, Sumatra and Lepar Is. The fruits are exported for their medicinal value.

        Refs: 14573

        Sterculia scortechinii

        Sterculiaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak)

        A tall tree inhabiting lowland rainforest of Sumatra, Sarawak, Sabah and the states of Johore and Perak in Peninsular Malaysia.

        Assessor: Chua, L.S.L.

        Refs: 8464, 19073

        Strombosia javanica

        Olacaceae DD

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand

        A tree scattered throughout lowland rainforest, secondary forest and mixed dipterocarp forest. The timber is used locally in Sabah and Sarawak for house construction.

        Assessor: Viet Nam Regional Workshop

        Refs: 9199, 19017

        Trigoniastrum hypoleucum

        Trigoniaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        This monotypic genus is widespread but uncommon; it exists in many habitat types from lowland peat swamp forest and mixed dipterocarp forest to submontane forest.

        Refs: 7673, 9199, 17140, 19017

        Triomma malaccensis

        Burseraceae

        Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        A large, emergent tree, up to 60 m in height, found scattered in the primary lowland rainforests of western Malesia. It is common in Sabah and uncommon (2 collections only) in Sarawak. Trees are cut and traded as kedondong timber, especially in Malaysia, but it is not cut selectively on a large scale. The lightweight wood has many uses. Signs of regeneration are very scarce, perhaps due to low fruit setting and seedlings seem to be affected by competition. It also regenerates badly in logged over forest. This is a monotypic genus that is considered an ancient relic because of the primative dry dehiscent fruits.

        Refs: 7673, 9199, 11145, 12937, 19017

        Vatica brunigii

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sarawak)

        A tree, found in heath forest in coastal areas and on dry ridges, suffering from habitat degradation.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Vatica lowii

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Vatica maingayi

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore

        A locally frequent lowland tree which is cut for resak timber.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

        *Vatica obovata

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1cd

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Forest conversion has brought this Sumatran endemic close to extinction.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Vatica pauciflora

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand

        Locally common in freshwater swamps and on riverbanks, this tree is used as resak timber. It is collected for firewood.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9199

        Vatica perakensis

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        A tree of low ridges and coastal hills found in central Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        Vatica ridleyana

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1c, C2a, D1

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Singapore

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169, 9199

         

        *Vatica soepadmoi

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1c, C2a

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Endemic to east Sumatra, this species is very close to extinction.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Vatica stapfiana

        Dipterocarpaceae

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia, Thailand

        A small dipterocarp which is scattered in lowland dipterocarp forest. This species can hybridize with the closely relatedVatica umbonata.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        *Vatica teysmanniana

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra)

        Found in mixed swamp forest in eastern Sumatra and Bangka, the timber of this tree is locally popular mainly for house and bridge building.

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 7673, 9169

        Vatica venulosa

        Dipterocarpaceae CR A1c

        Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)

        Assessor: Ashton, P.

        Refs: 5550, 7673, 9169

        Report References

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